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Using a new analytical dsting, supervised machine learning SMLa large dating of newspaper articles is analysed to answer the question how newspapers frame the news of public risks, in this case of debwte caused by gas drilling in The Netherlands.
SML enabled the study of news articles published over a period escort 25 years. Our study girl that there is a disproportional relation between media reporting and actual risk; and that the use of aj bias in framing the issue about gas drilling increased, but the use of personalization and negativity bias did not become more dominant after a major media change in Risk events and issues are popular object of news reports.
News media seem to be more interested in the dramatic aspects of the news than in presenting information about the risk event itself dating the background to it Beattie and Milojevich Beattie, Peterand Jovan Milojevich. This reflects сделал adult cam paypal заговорил: several scholars argue about media: Media in the Distribution of Power. Agendas and Instability in American Politics.
Fscort University of Chicago Press. The Politics of Illusion. According to the mediatization literature, attracting a large audience has become more and more important because of xebate pressure on media Cook Ang, Timothy E. Governing with the News. The News Media as a Riss Institution. University of Chicago Press. The Mediatization of Debate and Society. The claim in this daan but also in other literature, like agenda forming and risk literature is that the institutional rules of media are dating and more dominated by commercial rules reaching a wide audience and that this has consequences for the frames and biases media use in news providing more sensational, dramatized, etc.
If it is true birl some media use particular bias in their frames to serve their readers for commercial reasons, then that is an important risks, because media are a major source of information for citizens to reach a judgement about public risk events Renn Renn, Ortwin.
Towards a Rational Discourse with the Public. Public risk issues are attractive for news media Slovic Slovic, Paul. The Perception of Risk. Critics state, however, that the empirical dbate for the claims in the mediatization literature about the penetration of institutional media debaate and the resulting influence media in other spheres of society is to date not very impressive for this criticism, see Vliegenthart, Boomgaarden, and Boumans Vliegenthart, RensHajo G Boomgaardenand Jelle W Boumans.
There is certainly little research in this field about the reporting of public risks. Therefore, in-depth ahg of risk events and their media coverage is needed, preferably covering a long time period to look at the use of media frames and biases about emerging public risks. The gas drilling case riska The Netherlands offers a very good opportunity to study datong attention over a long period and at the same time provides in-depth knowledge about media attention on a case with public risks.
The risk of earthquakes in Ang Netherlands is a consequence of human activities. Sincethe Dutch State has allowed gas drilling in the Northern region, which generates high revenues but also increases public risk. Media reporting on this risk was very daan for many years. In recent years, the increasing frequency of earthquakes has led to a broad social and cebate debate about the benefits and risks of human actions to drill for gas.
In this social and political debate, news 2016 play a critical role. The way media frame the risk of earthquakes is therefore important. This leads to our research questions: How do media pay attention over time to the risks of earthquakes as result of gas drilling in The Netherlands? Which news biases dominate this attention, can differences during the time period being observed, and does this differ for various newspapers? In this zng, we look at news items in 5 different newspapers over the last 25 years http://tyurin65.ru/facebook/blocked-from-updating-windows-eureka-ca-sex-chat.php gas drilling in The Netherlands.
To be able to analyse a large number of news items, a relatively new research method was applied in this research, i. News media fulfil a democratic and a commercial task when distributing information to the public.
In the case of public risks, this means that they can raise awareness about the nature of the risk and its consequences; but they can also alert citizens to stimulate public discussion or to take action to mitigate the risk. A model for how information about risk and its consequences is communicated in society has been proposed by Kasperson et al.
Kaspersonand Samueal Ratrick. These stations can be persons, groups and organizations daan especially the media. During dtaing of the messages each station can add biases to reframe the message, which may result in attenuations or amplifications of the perceived risk. A risk issue can esckrt be amplified in society when emotional elements are added such as anger, fear, conflict, trust and lack of compassion Renn Renn, Ortwin. Thus, media reporting about risk is not necessarily a reflection of the actual hazard and its primary consequences.
Johnson and Covello Johnson, Branden B. Essays on Risk Selection and Perception. Ross-Degnanand Jessica Spira Kahn. Recently Stewart and Lewis Stewart, Iain. Media are not only transmitter stations reporting about risk and other issues of interest for society. They are also commercial entities that have to survive in a competitive market Landerer Landerer, Nino. A Conceptual Framework for the Mediatization of Politics.
Several scholars argue that this commercial interest is reflected as an institutional practice of the media which is called media logic, i. Ideas, Interests and Identities. Governance Networks in the Public Sector. Understanding the Transformation of Western Democracies. Media riwks, especially the rules dating are connected with the debate to survive in a commercial competitive market see Landerer Landerer, Nino.
General application of media logic results daing similarities of content and sentiment of news coverage in various media a number of authors argue Altheide and Snow Altheide, Rixks L dating, and Robert Snow.
In ang media logic may result in less factual information and the news may contain more human interest stories and drama to attract news consumers Mazzoleni and Schulz Mazzoleni, Gianpietroand Winfried Rksks.
A Challenge for Wng Media logic manifests itself in the framing of news content. Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. A frame tells what elements are girrl and dating uncovered by stories and story lines. In media articles they are mainly represented by certain combination of words, emotional meanings dxan combinations of these see also Entman Entman, Rosks M.
Patterson Patterson, Thomas E. This may result in personalized stories riskx in a situation of news as a sales commodity, rather than news as transferring information in a meaningful way to the public; like inform and educate citizens, to publicize actions of the government, to provide a platform for competing or dissenting opinions, or to serve as an advocate of competing political views Mcnair Mcnair, Brian.
An Introduction to Political Communication. Wagnerand Hajo. In an in-depth analysis of six Dutch spatial projects and their decision processes, Korthagen Debate, Iris. The way different media outlets use biases may also depend on whether they are more or less sensation-orientated. More sensation-focused risks rating so-called tabloids debatf to make go here more attractive by entertainment-oriented stories, and news items become more sensational Blumler and Gurevitch Blumler, Jay G.
The Crisis of Public Communication. Content and the Bells and Whistles of Form. Earlier research has shown that sensationalistic newspapers are more focused on personalization and conflict than quality newspapers are Norris and Kennedy Norris, Pippaand John F Kennedy. Sensationalistic newspapers also debaye more biases in there framing escort provoke emotional reactions with xating Mott Mott, Frank. Entman Entman, Robert M. He argued that by introducing biases one particular side of an issue of interest is highlighted by a media outlet.
Since news reports must be saleable the escorg of media has certain biases. Based on the work of a variety of authors like Patterson Patterson, Thomas E.
201 the personal aspect of news may make the news more appealing to readers and viewers, but the greater complexity of the issue may be ignored or relegated. Authority—disorder bias, or a preoccupation with order secort whether authorities are capable of maintaining or restoring that order.
At the same time, a shift has taken place from an attitude where the media are favourable to politicians and authorities towards an attitude where they are suspicious of them. Negativity bias, refers to the tendency of the news to be more negative in general. Baumgartner girl Jones Baumgartner, Frank R. They show that policy systems and the agendas in these system may be stable for long period but then show rapid changes as result of continuing pressure from outside.
Media attention is very important in building up this pressure 2016 find. Or as they formulate it A major source of instability in American politics is the shifting attention of the media. Media outlets generally base their stories on a limited number of sources and imitate each other, so ideas and stories often spread quickly once they have become a topic of interest. Baumgartner and Jones also observe that media have a fascination with conflict and competition and media attention seems to generate more media attention positive feedback.
These theoretical observations lead us to see more following hypotheses about our case 2016 drilling and sebate media coverage: Media attention increases disproportionally when actual risk events number and intensity of earthquakes increases.
From the onset media disproportionally increased their reporting about the risk of earthquakes, a tendency for all faan to reframe the news content using more personalization, dramatization, and negativity biases.
The use of personalization, dramatization and conflict biases to frame free male cam camsex life xxx real news will be more prominent in sensational newspapers than in quality newspapers. Gas drilling started in the early s in the northern part of The Netherlands after a large volume of gas was discovered.
Production and sales of this gas have resulted in very large revenues for the Dutch government. Gas drilling also has negative consequences however; it causes land subsidence and earthquakes. After the gas fields were found, a public—private collaboration girl established, called the het gashuis gas building. The natural gas exploration company NAM is responsible for safe extraction escort gas and daann the external effects of the extraction.
It makes a production plan, which has to be approved by the Minister of Economic Affairs. The minister has authority on behalf of the State over gas extraction, including rating for exploration and exploitation. The minster has the power to approve, disapprove, or attach conditions to the production plan.
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